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Antoine Lavoisier determined that oxygen was a key substance in combustionand he gave the element its name. However, he devoted much of his time to lectures on physics and chemistry and to working with leading scientists. Antoine Lavoisier was born and raised in Paris. He was the first child and only son of a wealthy family.
Under the monarchy, Lavoisier had a share in the General Farm, an enterprise that collected taxes for the government. He was executed with his father-in-law and 26 other General Farm members. Marie-Anne Paulze married Antoine Lavoisier in She assisted Antoine in his experiments. She did the drawings for many of his works and translated works from Adult singles dating in Antoine for him since he did not know that language. Antoine Lavoisierin full Antoine-Laurent Lavoisierborn August 26,Paris, France—died May 8,Parisprominent French chemist and leading figure in the 18th-century chemical revolution who developed an experimentally based theory of the chemical reactivity of oxygen and coauthored the modern system for naming chemical substances.
Having also served as a leading financier and public administrator before the French Revolutionhe was executed with other financiers during the Terror.
Lavoisier was the first child and only son of a wealthy bourgeois family living in Paris. As a youth he exhibited an unusual studiousness and concern for the public good. Since the Paris law faculty made few demands on its students, Lavoisier was able to spend much of his three years as a law student attending public and private lectures on chemistry and physics and working under the tutelage of leading naturalists.
Upon completing his legal studies, Lavoisier, like his father and his maternal grandfather before him, was admitted to the elite Order of Barristers, whose members presented cases before the High Court Parlement of Paris. The chemistry Lavoisier studied as a student was not a subject particularly noted for Adult singles dating in Antoine clarity or theoretical rigour. Although chemical writings contained considerable information about the substances chemists studied, little agreement existed upon the precise composition of chemical elements or between explanations of changes in composition.
Many natural philosophers still viewed the four elements of Greek natural philosophy—earth, air, fire, and water—as the primary substances of all matter. They hoped that by first identifying the properties of simple substances they would then be able to construct theories to explain the properties of compounds. It was ly claimed that the elements were distinguishable by certain physical properties: water and earth were incompressible, air could be both expanded and compressed, whereas fire could not be either contained or measured. Perhaps, Hales Adult singles dating in Antoine, air was really just a vapour like steam, and its spring, rather than being an essential property of the element, was created by heat.
In the s the Scottish chemist Joseph Black demonstrated experimentally that the air fixed in certain reactions is chemically different from common air. Black wanted to know why slaked quicklime hydrated calcium oxide was neutralized when exposed to the atmosphere. Thus, pneumatic chemistry was a lively subject at the time Lavoisier became interested in a particular set of problems that involved air: the linked phenomena of combustionrespiration, and what 18th-century chemists called calcination the change of metals to a powder [calx], such as that obtained by the rusting of iron.
The assertion that mass is conserved in chemical reactions was an assumption of Enlightenment investigators rather than a discovery revealed by their experiments. Lavoisier believed that matter was neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactionsand in his experiments Adult singles dating in Antoine sought to demonstrate that this belief was not violated. Still he had difficulty proving that his view was universally valid. His insistence that chemists accepted this assumption as a law was part of his larger program for raising chemistry to the investigative standards and causal explanation found in contemporary experimental physics.
While other chemists were also looking for conservation principles capable of explaining chemical reactions, Lavoisier was particularly intent on collecting and weighing all the substances involved in the reactions he studied.
His success in the many elaborate experiments he conducted was in large part due to his independent wealth, which enabled him to have expensive apparatus built to his de, and to his ability to recruit and direct talented research associates. Antoine Lavoisier.
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External Websites. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. By Arthur L. Donovan View Edit History. See all media. Show more Born: August 26, Paris France Show more Died: May 8, Paris France Show more Subjects Of Study: chemical element conservation of mass hydrogen oxidation oxygen Show more. Top Questions.
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